Human Factors in Simulation

June 11, 2013


Medical mannequin simulator (photo: US Navy)

Human factors are extremely important in simulation, as this 2009 book points out. Human-factors expertise is important both in simulating human beings and in the use of simulations by human beings.


Physical human limits (image: AnyBody public repository)

Issues involved in simulating human beings include physical and ergonomic factors, as well as human behaviour modelling (the subject of this workshop). In training simulations, it is important to fully understand the human process which is to be improved by simulator training. This can include subtle issues such team interaction, as well the more obvious factors.


Pilot landing cues? (screenshot from FlightGear)

There is also a plethora of human-factors issues in the development, design, conduct, debriefing, and debugging of simulations relating to the use of simulators by human beings. Negative training, for example, occurs when users of a training simulation learn the wrong knowledge, skills, or behaviours. This can be the result of low-fidelity representation of important decision or feedback cues, of timing delays, of incorrect or incomplete problem representations, or of other simulator design flaws. It is impossible to build a simulator with 100% fidelity, and even 99% fidelity would be prohibitively expensive. To achieve the required outcomes, where is high fidelity necessary? Human-factors expertise is essential in answering that question.

Simulator sickness affects many users of flights and vehicle simulators, and limits the potential benefits of such simulators. See this 2005 study for an overview of research in this area.

In training simulations, a variety of cognitive-psychology factors also come into play. Likewise, in decision-support simulations, it is important to understand the limits of the conclusions that can be drawn. Which results tell us meaningful things about the problem at hand, and which results simply reflect characteristics of the simulation?

Simulation is an extremely valuable tool for both training and decision support. Yet, for the best results, it is important to take into account human factors in both the design and the use of the simulation.


Vehicle simulator (photo: US Army)

– Tony


Red teaming – what is it?

June 6, 2013

The guys at Red Team Journal recently posted some useful links about Red Teaming, including:

  • Red Teaming: A Balanced View.
  • The Laws of Red Teaming. My favourite is #15: “The apprentice red teamer thinks like the attacker. The journeyman red teamer thinks like the attacker and the defender. The master red teamer thinks about the attacker and defender thinking about each other. Hire an apprentice to model an unsophisticated adversary. Hire a journeyman to model a sophisticated adversary. Hire a master to model the system.
  • A list of Red Teaming resources.

Probably a good way of getting a quick overview of the topic.

– Tony


Human Behaviour Modelling Workshop – 16 Sept

June 3, 2013

My interest in human behaviour modelling is no secret, so it’s no surprise that I’m excited to be running a half-day workshop on the subject at this year’s SimTecT conference in Brisbane.

The workshop will cover key issues and major steps in human behaviour modelling, including practical “how to” advice, data collection issues, verification & validation, and some common pitfalls. Applications to Defence, Mining, and Health industries will be covered (depending on the participants). Some practical examples written in NetLogo will be given, although the techniques presented will be relevant to any simulation system.

Update: Unfortunately this workshop has been cancelled.

– Tony