Human factors are extremely important in simulation, as this 2009 book points out. Human-factors expertise is important both in simulating human beings and in the use of simulations by human beings.
Physical human limits (image: AnyBody public repository)
Issues involved in simulating human beings include physical and ergonomic factors, as well as human behaviour modelling (the subject of this workshop). In training simulations, it is important to fully understand the human process which is to be improved by simulator training. This can include subtle issues such team interaction, as well the more obvious factors.
Pilot landing cues? (screenshot from FlightGear)
There is also a plethora of human-factors issues in the development, design, conduct, debriefing, and debugging of simulations relating to the use of simulators by human beings. Negative training, for example, occurs when users of a training simulation learn the wrong knowledge, skills, or behaviours. This can be the result of low-fidelity representation of important decision or feedback cues, of timing delays, of incorrect or incomplete problem representations, or of other simulator design flaws. It is impossible to build a simulator with 100% fidelity, and even 99% fidelity would be prohibitively expensive. To achieve the required outcomes, where is high fidelity necessary? Human-factors expertise is essential in answering that question.
In training simulations, a variety of cognitive-psychology factors also come into play. Likewise, in decision-support simulations, it is important to understand the limits of the conclusions that can be drawn. Which results tell us meaningful things about the problem at hand, and which results simply reflect characteristics of the simulation?
Simulation is an extremely valuable tool for both training and decision support. Yet, for the best results, it is important to take into account human factors in both the design and the use of the simulation.